Tag: <span>media</span>

Education Education of World Citizenships.

Education for Active World Citizenship

Featured Image: Photo by National Cancer Institute on Unsplash.

The Education currently  there is growing attention both in scholarly;  and popular writing with the process of globalization. Globalization is an empirical process of world integration driven by a variety of economic, cultural, political, and ideological forces as seen in such areas as market expansion;  a global production pattern as well as cultural homogenisation.

However; In the fields of economics, politics, technology, environment and health;  we see greater collaboration and interdependence. Now international conferences;  common trade agreements and multinational projects are striving to find solutions to long-standing difficulties;  and to promote development in areas, where the problems have become too great to be resolved by a single State.

Nevertheless; we are learning, out of necessity, that competition has its limits. To give one example, many of the issues in trade negotiations;  which go on in Geneva are about labour standards, environmental policies and human rights (such as products fabricated by child labour).

These are all deeply domestic matters;  which have now become part of international affairs. Has education been changing as quickly as the world economy?. How are we preparing children to meet the demands of the world society?.


What role are schools playing in the formation of active world citizens able to make real contributions to the creation of a more peaceful society?

Education is uniquely placed to help deal with the major problems facing the world society: violent conflict, poverty, the destruction of the natural environment, and other fundamental issues touching human beings everywhere.

Education provides information;  skills and helps to shape values and attitudes. Yet many children fall outside formal education. Some 113 million school-age children are out of school;  and some 875 million adults are illiterate.

This is evidence of the fact that the size;  and complexity of education for all are too great for governments alone to address;  even with the best of intentions and effort.

Education is not limited to the formal school system.

It is true that education is not limited to the formal school system. There are many agents of education: family, media, peers, and associations of all sorts. Nevertheless, schools play a central role, and people expect schools to be leaders in the educational process.

Unfortunately;  there are times when schools are left alone as the only conscious instrument of education. Therefore;  teachers need to analyse;  how other agents of society contribute to the educational process or;  more negatively, may hinder the educational process or promote destructive attitudes and values.


Photo by NeONBRAND on Unsplash.

Education has two related aims.

One is to help the student to function in society, be it the local, the national, and the world society.

The other aim is to help in the fullest development of the individual’s physical, emotional, intellectual, and spiritual capacities. There are three related ways to help prepare students for a fast-changing world in which people, ideas, goods and services increasingly cross State frontiers. These ways are related to:

  1.  Skills.

  2. Content.

  3. Values and Attitudes.

There is a need to teach those skills needed to be able to function effectively in the world: skills of goal setting, analysis, problem solving, research, communication, and conflict-resolution skills. We need to place more emphasis on communication skills in our schools;  with an emphasis on personal expression through language and the arts.

Opportunities Needs.

Children need opportunities to acquire skills in writing, speech, drama, music, painting;  and other arts in order to find their own voices and expressions.

The second area of importance concerns the content of education;  with an emphasis on modern history and geography, ecology, economics, civics, and the history of science and technology.

There is also a need to organize a curriculum through the use of broad themes such as interdependence, change, complexity, culture and conflict.

A Global Society.

The third area concerns values and attitudes needed for living in a global society: self-confidence in one’s own capacity, concern and interest in others;  an openness to the cultural contributions of other societies.

There needs to be a willingness to live with complexity;  to refuse easy answers or to shift blame to others. In practice;  a good teacher makes a personalized combination of all these elements.

One must be realistic in evaluating the difficulties of restructuring educational systems;  to make them future oriented and open to the world.

A Global Society

Photo by Cameron Casey in Pexels.

Educational System.

We all know the heavy structures of educational systems;  and the pressures to conform to the status quo. We must not underestimate the narrow nationalistic pressures;  on the teaching of social issues nor the political influences on content and methods.

In order to understand the limits and the possibilities of change;  teachers must be prepared to carry out research on the local community. They must be able to analyse their specific communities.

It is always dangerous to make wide generalizations on the role of the family, the media, of religion as if it were always the same in all parts of the country;  or the same in all social classes and milieu.

Thus;  teachers should be able, with some sociological training;  to carry out studies on the formation of attitudes;  values and skills of their students by looking at the respective role of the family, the content of the media, and student participation in associations.

Such studies can be carried out in a cooperative way,  among several teachers so as to be able to go to greater depth.

Teachers could look for information to help answer such questions as: 

“Are any groups excluded from participating in the community?”

“How can possible marginalisation be counteracted?”

“How can one study environmental and ecological issues locally?”

“What is the significance of different role models such as peers, parents, and educators?”

“In what ways can non-formal and informal learning environments be furthered?”

In conclusion; there are more and more teachers;  who realise the direction of current world trends. Migration puts other cultures on one’s door step. We all need to be encouraged by the advances being made. We can help one another so that we may develop the culture of peace and active world citizenship together.

Here are other publications that may be of interest to you.

1 2 21
Narges Bajoghli Book Reviews

Narges Bajoghli. Iran Re-Framed: Anxieties of Power in the…

(Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2019).

The title of this valuable book comes from the vocabulary of film and video making when images are “reframed”; to tell a different or additional story than when the images were first made.  The book is devoted to interviews and discussions with film and video makers in Iran; who are supporters of the regime; having made films for the Revolutionary Guard and the Bagij (a volunteer paramilitary group first; created during the Iraq-Iran war.)

As Narges Bajoghli writes:

Once I began my long-term research in Iran in 2009, I became immerssed in the richly complex and competitive environment of regime media production.  I found a media world in which men tied to the Revolutionary Guard and the country’s paramilitary organizations held heated debates about the future of the Islamic Republic, fought with one another over resources and pursued their project through trial and error…They engaged in difficult conversations about which stories to tell, whose stories are included and how to frame the issues at hand.  The revolutionary zeal of the founding decades is now gone, and the regime’s media producers face the dilemma of how to replace it with a commitment to the regime in the face of fierce international pressures.

To make matters even more complicated, regime media producers in Iran have to contend with the fact that audiences dismiss anything they produce as propaganda. So how do they get a message across when a large portion of the audience no longer wants to engage?”


  She writes of one media discussion; in which she participated.

Populist Nationalism.

As the regime’s cultural producers were strategizing new engagement and distribution strategic; they began to brainstorm about the ways they could tailor the content of their work to young audiences.  Their old stories were couched in their interpretations of a Shi’a ethos of fighting against oppression that was embodied in the Karbala mythology of Imam Hussein.  But these stories clearly no longer resonated with their desired audience; they needed a new unifying story.  This new story presented itself in the form of populist nationalism in the general population. 

Mr Ahmedi chimed in ‘We have to show young people that we’re here to protect Iran as a nation not just the Islamic Republic as an idea.  Young people pull away from us because they see the regime as alien to the history of Iran.  We have to show them that we also care about Iran.”

Four Generations.

         Narges Bajoghli deals with four critical periods of modern Iran, creating what she considers as four generations.  Generations are defined; not so much by time as by central events that touch people of different ages; but whose attitudes and world vision are formed; at least in part by these central events.

The Islamic Revolution.

1) The first of the current generation was formed by the Islamic Revolution; with the return from exile in February 1979 of Ayatollah Khomeini; followed by the 1980-1988 Iraq-Iran war.  The war allowed the Islamic Republic government; to silence dissent and eliminate many of the non-Islamic elements; which had been active in overthrowing the Shah.  The war time media helped to rally the country; behind nationalist sentiments and to strengthen state institutions.

The Reconstruction.

2) The second generation was formed by the post-war 1990s: the reconstruction after the war led to economic gain for those close to power.

Once the war ended, a conscious decision was made to transform the war from a military confrontation with Iraq to a cultural and social confrontation in Iranian cities and towns.”  This period saw the rise of efforts to control dress; increased participation in religious ceremonies and a stress on Islamic values.

Green Movement.

3) The third generation is marked by the 2009; Green Movement with the largest demonstrations; since the 1979 period.  The regime confronted a crisis of credibility.  While the Green Movement did not reach its goals; the Movement impacted those who participated; and so became the defining event of the generation.

Soft War.

4)  The fourth generation is the current; one that the regime media producers want to influence.  Since 2015; the regime cultural producers have begun to pour more money and resources into producing music videos; that they hope young people will not only consume; but also make viral on Instagram and Telegram.  There is an increasing effort to confront; what the Iranian officials call the “Soft War” – the ways in which the U.S.A., European powers, the iranian diaspora and Israel try to influence Iranian politics with the power of culture.  This “Soft War” is still going on; and Narges Bajoghli has written a useful guide to understnading the issues.

Rene Wadlow, President, Association of World Citizens.