Tag: <span>Luhansk</span>

Donetsk and Luhansk Apelaciones

Autonomía vital para la República Popular de Donetsk y…

Imagen destacada: Regreso de ciudadanos liberados al territorio controlado por Ucrania, 29 de diciembre de 2019. By President.gov.ua, CC BY 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons.

Las tensiones actuales en las fronteras entre Ucrania, Donbas y Rusia tienen muchas dimensiones, tanto geopolíticas como nacionales. Hay largos aspectos históricos y estratégicos en la crisis actual. Las crisis de seguridad están profundamente influenciadas tanto por el sentido de la historia como por las percepciones actuales. Ha habido discusiones bilaterales entre las autoridades estadounidenses y rusas, entre los líderes rusos y franceses, entre los líderes rusos y chinos, entre el líder ucraniano y varios otros y discusiones multilaterales dentro de la Organización para la Seguridad y la Cooperación en Europa (OSCE), dentro de la OTAN. , en el Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU y dentro de la Unión Europea. Por el momento, no ha habido una desescalada de tensiones ni una reducción de los niveles de tropas.

Actualmente, solo existe una estructura permanente para las negociaciones multilaterales sobre las tensiones de Ucrania: el “Formato de Normandía“, que reúne a los representantes de Ucrania y Rusia, Francia y Alemania principalmente para negociar sobre el estatus de las Repúblicas Populares separatistas.Ukraine

La famosa Plaza de la Independencia en Kiev en un día soleado. Photo por Euan Cameron en Unsplash.

Tal vez te interese leer: Ucrania-Donbas-Rusia: ¿Se puede reactivar el Formato de Normandía?.

Estatus Especial.

El Acuerdo de Minsk II del 12 de febrero de 2015 acordó que las áreas cubiertas por las Repúblicas Populares de Donetsk y Luhansk no se separarían de Ucrania, sino que se les otorgaría un “Estatus Especial” establecido en una nueva Constitución de Ucrania. Sin embargo, más allá de una discusión bastante vaga sobre la descentralización, no se ha acordado la naturaleza del Estatus Especial y no se han implementado medidas administrativas del gobierno ucraniano.

En el período transcurrido desde 2015, la situación socioeconómica en las dos Repúblicas Populares ha empeorado. Muchas personas se han ido a Ucrania o Rusia. Hay violaciones constantes de los acuerdos de alto el fuego que son monitoreadas por observadores de la Organización para la Seguridad y la Cooperación en Europa. Así, en su informe del 15 de diciembre de 2021, los monitores de la OSCE señalaron que entre el 10 y el 12 de diciembre hubo 444 violaciones del alto el fuego en la región de Donetsk y 104 en la región de Luhansk. Sin embargo, la libertad de movimiento de los observadores de la OSCE está restringida. El número de violaciones, por lo general intercambios de armas pequeñas, es probablemente mayor.

La Asociación de Ciudadanos del Mundo.

Resolver el aspecto de Donbas del conflicto sobre la base de una autonomía real y vital y una cooperación transfronteriza debería ser una prioridad máxima para la acción. La Asociación de Ciudadanos del Mundo siempre ha subrayado la importancia de desarrollar formas apropiadas de gobierno como un aspecto crucial de la resolución de conflictos armados. La Asociación ha destacado especialmente las posibilidades del con-federalismo y la necesidad de una cooperación transfronteriza. La Asociación participó en el inicio del conflicto Abjasia-Georgia en agosto de 1992 y en los primeros esfuerzos de negociación llevados a cabo en Ginebra con representantes de Abjasia que estaban en Ginebra y funcionarios de las Naciones Unidas y el Comité Internacional de la Cruz Roja. Así sabemos cómo un ciclo de acción-reacción puede profundizar un conflicto y lo difícil que es restablecer las estructuras de gobierno una vez establecida la separación.

La necesidad de avanzar en la estructura de Ucrania se destaca claramente en este momento cuando existen posibilidades reales de riesgos de escalada. Existe la necesidad de medidas de fomento de la confianza que lleguen a diferentes capas de la sociedad en un proceso acumulativo. Los avances en el Estatus Especial serían un paso importante en la distensión de las tensiones. Mientras las dos Repúblicas Populares se mantengan débiles, dependerán del apoyo de Rusia. Es cuando son económica y socialmente fuertes que pueden tener relaciones transfronterizas útiles tanto con Rusia como con el resto de Ucrania. Los debates sobre el estatus especial deben ser llevados a cabo por quienes viven en Ucrania.

Sin embargo, los representantes gubernamentales y las organizaciones no gubernamentales en Rusia, Alemania y Francia también pueden contribuir activamente. La nueva ministra alemana de Asuntos Exteriores, la ecologista Annalena Baerbock, procedente de un Estado estructurado federalista con muchas iniciativas locales posibles, puede aportar nuevas visiones a estas discusiones que cada vez están más en marcha.

Annalena Baerbock

La nueva ministra alemana de Asuntos Exteriores, la ecologista Annalena Baerbock.  Por Stefan Kaminski (photography), Annalena Baerbock (full rights of use), CC BY-SA 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons.

Rene Wadlow, Presidente, Asociación de Ciudadanos del Mundo.

Aquí tienes otras publicaciones que pueden ser de tu interés.

The Uprooted.

Increasing numbers of people in countries around the world, have been forced from their homes, by armed conflicts and systematic violations of human rights. Those who cross internationally recognized borders…

1 2 12
Donetsk and Luhansk Appeals

Vital Autonomy for the People’s Republic of Donetsk and…

Featured Image: Return of released citizens to the territory controlled by Ukraine, December 29, 2019. By President.gov.ua, CC BY 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons.

There are many dimensions to the current tensions on the Ukraine-Donbas-Russia frontiers, both geopolitical and domestic considerations.  There are long historic and strategic aspects to the current crisis.  Security crises are deeply influenced both by a sense of history and by current perceptions.  There have been bilateral discussions between U.S. and Russian authorities, between Russian and French leaders, between Russian and Chinese  leaders, between the Ukrainian leader and a number of others and multilateral discussions within the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), within NATO, at the U.N. Security Council, and within the European Union.  For the moment, there has been no de-escalation of tensions nor a lowering  of troop levels.

Currently, there is only one permanent structure for multilateral negotiations on the Ukraine tensions – the “Normandy Format” which brings together the representatives of Ukraine and Russia, France and Germany primarily to negotiate on the status of the separatist People’s Republics.

Ukraine

The famous Independence Square in Kiev on a sunny day. Photo by Euan Cameron on Unsplash.

You might be interested in reading: Ukraine-Donbas-Russia: Can the Normandy Format Be Reactivated?.

Special Status.

The Minsk II Agreement of 12 February 2015 agreed that the areas covered by the Donetsk and Luhansk People’s Republics would not be separated from Ukraine but would be given a “Special Status” set out in a new Ukrainian Constitution.  However, beyond some rather vague discussion on decentralization, the nature of the Special Status has not been agreed upon, and no Ukrainian government administrative measures have been put into place.

In the period since 2015, the socio-economic situation in the two People’s Republics has gotten worse.  Many people have left either for Ukraine or Russia.  There are constant violations of the ceasefire agreements which are monitored by observers of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe.  Thus it its 15 December 2021 report the OSCE monitors noted that between 10-12 December, there were 444 ceasefire violations in the Donetsk region and 104 in the Luhansk region. However, the freedom of movement of the OSCE observers is restricted.  The number of violations, usually exchanges of small arms fire, is probably higher.

The Association of World Citizens.

Solving the Donbas aspect of the conflict on the basis of  a real and vital autonomy and trans-frontier cooperation should be a top priority for action. The Association of World Citizens has always stressed the importance of developing appropriate forms of government as a crucial aspect of the resolution of armed conflicts.  The Association has particularly highlighted the possiblities of con-federalism and the need for trans-frontier cooperation. The Association was involved at the start of the Abkhazia-Georgia conflict in August 1992 and the  first efforts at negotiations carried out in Geneva with representatives from Abkhazia who were in Geneva and officials from the United Nations and the  International Committee of the Red Cross.  Thus we know how a cycle of action-reaction can deepen a conflict and how difficult it is to re-establish structures of government once separation has been established.

The need to  progress on the structure of Ukraine stands out sharply at this time when there are real possibilities of escalatory risks.  There is a need for confidence-building measures reaching out to different layers of society in a cumulative process.  Advances on the Special Status would be an important step in the de-escalation of tensions.   As long as the two People’s Republics are kept weak, they will be dependent on support from Russia.  It is when they are economically and socially strong that they can have useful trans-frontier relations both with Russia and the rest of Ukraine. Discussions on the Special Status must be carried out by those living in Ukraine. 

However, government representatives as well as non-governmental organizations in Russia, Germany, and France can also contribute actively.  The new German Foreign Minister, the ecologist Annalena Baerbach, coming from a federalist-structured State with many local initiatives possible, may bring new visions to these discussions which are increasingly under way.

Annalena Baerbock

The new German Foreign Minister, the ecologist Annalena Baerbock.  By Stefan Kaminski (photography), Annalena Baerbock (full rights of use), CC BY-SA 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons.

Rene Wadlow, President, Association of World Citizens.

Here are other publications that may be of interest to you.

The Uprooted.

Increasing numbers of people in countries around the world, have been forced from their homes, by armed conflicts and systematic violations of human rights. Those who cross internationally recognized borders…

1 2 12

Ukraine Appeals

Saber Rattling Along the Frontiers of Ukraine

Photo by  jorono in Pixabay

By Rene Wadlow.

16 Apr 2021 – The meeting today in Paris of the President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelensky and the French President Emmanuel Macron highlights the tensions between Ukraine, the separatist regions of Donbass and Luhansk and the Russian Federation.  France and Germany are the lead mediators in what is called the “Normandy Initiative” for resolution of the Ukraine-Donbass-Russia conflict.

Tensions have grown recently with increased violence along the lines of contact between Ukraine and Donbass and the increased number of Russian troops along the frontier. It is likely that the change in presidential administration in the U.S.A. is one aspect of this increase in tensions.  Both the U.S.A. and Russia want to remind each other that they are there. In the background is the possibility of Ukraine joining NATO which obviously Russia wants to avoid. Also in the background is the Ukrainian government’s recent approval of a “Strategy for Deoccupation and Reintegration of Crimea” and its Black Sea port of Sevastopol.

While it is unlikely that there will be an escalation of violence with an entry of Russian troops into Ukraine or the reverse, an attack on Russian soil, saber rattling can get out of hand and lead to unforeseen consequences.

The question which faces us as peace-builders is “What can we do?” to help reduce these tensions. The Association of World Citizens sent this past week an Appeal for increased mediation efforts to the authorities of the Normandy Initiative, France and Germany. It is certain that the French and German diplomats are already aware of the dangers of the situation, but it is useful that non-governmental voices be heard.  Are there avenues for Track II exchanges or non-governmental mediation efforts?  Related areas of tension are also in flux: Syria, Libya, Nagorno-Karabakh.  We need to see what doors might open, and what we can usefully propose.

This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 19 Apr 2021.

René Wadlow is a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace Development Environment. He is President of the Association of World Citizens, an international peace organization with consultative status with ECOSOC, the United Nations organ facilitating international cooperation and problem-solving in economic and social issues, and editor of Transnational Perspectives.

Here are other publications that may be of interest to you.

1 2 29

The Phantom Republics Appeals

Nagorno-Karabakh: A Phantom Republic Takes Center Stage

Photo by Sarin Aventisian on Unsplash

From bitter searching of the heart
Quickened with passion and with pain
We rise to play a greater part.
This is the faith from which we start
Men shall know commonwealth again
From bitter searching of the heart.
— Frank Scott (1899-1985)

9 Oct 2020 – The Phantom Republics;  is the name given to the States demanding the status of independence;  after the breakup of the Soviet Union: Abkhazia and South Ossetia in Georgia, Transnistea in Moldova, and Nagorno-Karabakh;  between Azerbaijan and Armenia.  The conflicts in Georgia and Moldova are now “frozen”; but they can “melt” at any time.  One might add the Donbass and Luhansk of Ukraine to the list  although the aims of the “separatists”;  are not fully clear: an autonomous status within Ukraine;  integration into the Russian Federation;  or an independent state.

The Association of World Citizens  had in a 14 April 2014 message;  to the Secretary General of the Organization of Security and Cooperation in Europe;  welcomed the serious consideration of federalist  government structures for Ukraine;  being proposed both by the then President of Ukraine;   in a 13 April 2014 statement;  and by the authorities of the Russian Federation. Since then the conflict has been “frozen”;  and no new advances have been made on constitutional structures.

As fighting has resumed between Armenia and Azerbaijan;  the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict has moved to center stage.

Package Deal.

As a first step toward a resolution of the conflicts in Georgia, Moldova and Nagorno-Karabakh;  is to have the Phantom Republics be given membership  within the United Nations;  so that their representatives could speak for themselves: Abkahazia, South Ossetia, Transnistra and the Republic of Artsakh;  the name given by the Armenian leadership to the Nagorno-Karabakh area.  In the Association of World Citizens’ proposal;  security would start with a “package deal” for the four entities.  Once recognized through U.N. membership;  it will be up to each of the Phantom Republics to create economic, social and political ties with its neighbors.

There are obviously oppositions;  to recognition of each of these states as independent members of the U.N;  in particular opposition from the state of which they were once a part.  Nevertheless;  such a package deal resembles earlier package deals for U.N. membership;  when countries had been blocked by Cold War tensions.  U.N. membership grants recognition of being part of the international community.

Breaking out of Thinking in Fixed Patterns.

To find mutually acceptable forms of government in these conflicts;  will require political creativity (breaking out of thinking in fixed patterns);  and then new forms of constitutional order;  such as renewed forms of con-federal types of government;  greater popular participation in decision making;  and new forms of protection of minorities.

Flexibility;  compromise and cooperation are the hallmarks of success;  when it comes to resolving conflicts concerning independence and autonomy.  There is a need for a healing of past animosities;  and a growth of wider loyalties.  Thus;  there is a need to create what has been called a “dialogic community” – a group of people who are concerned with intra-state conflicts;  who stress non-violent strategies of conflict resolution and associative methods of problem solving. These are people with political imagination;  who are willing to think about new institutions, practices, and ways of  life.  Today;  we are in a race between those who would create such a “dialogic community”;  and those who would use ethnic identity and ethnic myths to mobilize for narrow aims.

Thus;  the Phantom Republics can join the U.N. to sit along with such small U.N. members as Andorra, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco and San Marino – states born with the restructuring of feudal Europe.  It may take some time to turn Abkhazia into a Black Sea Monaco;  but inevitably, for economic and social reasons;  neighboring states learn to cooperate if they are not able to destroy by war.

 

René Wadlow is President of the Association of World Citizens;  an international peace organization with consultative status with ECOSOC;  the United Nations organ facilitating international cooperation and problem-solving in economic and social issues.

Here are other publications that may be of interest to you.

1 2 29