Tag: <span>Armenia</span>

Nagorno-Karabakh Appeals

Nagorno-Karabakh: Continuing Repercussions in Armenia.

This map describes the current situation in the disputed Nagorno-Karabakh region. The region is internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan but mostly governed by the de facto independent state, Republic of Artsakh. Image is a modified version of MarshallBagramyan’s map. File:Artsakh Occupation Map.png, Author:Elnur Hajiyev.

The November 2020; ceasefire agreement signed among the leaders of Azerbaijan, Armenia and Russia has provided some stability for the Nagorno-Karabakh area.  The 2000; Russian military dispatched quickly to the area has brought an end to the fighting.  The agreement stated that the Russian forces would stay for five years; but that their posting could be extended depending on the political situation.

When the fighting began on 27 September 2020; The Association of World Citizens;  which has been concerned with Nagorno-Karabakh; since the 1992 armed conflict; sent an urgent Appeal to the authorities of Azerbaijan and Armenia urging a ceasefire and the start of negotiations in good faith.  A follow up message was sent to the Ambassadors to the United Nations of the leadership of the Minsk Group of the OSCE (Russia, France, U.S.A.).

Azerbaijan-Turkish Aggression.

In Azerbaijan; the fighting which led to the ceasefire is widely considered as a “victory”; and has increased the popularity of the Azerbaijan President Iham Aliev.  However in Armenia; the fighting which led to a loss of seven districts around Nagorno-Karabakh; as well as one third of the Karabakh territory is considered as a “defeat”.

The Prime Minister of Armenia, Nikol Pachinian; is under heavy negative pressure with calls that he resign.  In Armenia; many refer to the fighting as the “Azerbaijan-Turkish Aggression” – an image recalling the Armenian genocide within the Ottoman Empire in 1915-1916.  Turkey had provided weapons and drones to Azerbaijan; which had an influence on the fighting.


No Longer Able to Make Reasonable Decisions.

On 25 February; the leaders of the Armenian armed forces demanded that the Prime Minister, Nikol Pachinian; and his whole cabinet resign.  The army had said a few days earlier; that the Prime Minister was “no longer able to make reasonable decisions”; after he had fired some of the top military commanders.

On 25 February; the Prime Minister warned of an attempted military coup; and called on his supporters to gather on Republic Square at the heart of Yerevan.  A good number of people have gathered on 26 February; and some plan to camp there as a form of protection on the model of such “Occupy” efforts in Turkey, Ukraine, Egypt and Wall Street. One must hope that cooler heads will arise to bring about a decrease in the tensions; but it is still too early to say.

A situation which merits close attention.

Rene Wadlow, President, Association of World Citizens.

The Phantom Republics Appeals

Nagorno-Karabakh: A Phantom Republic Takes Center Stage

Photo by Sarin Aventisian on Unsplash

From bitter searching of the heart
Quickened with passion and with pain
We rise to play a greater part.
This is the faith from which we start
Men shall know commonwealth again
From bitter searching of the heart.
— Frank Scott (1899-1985)

9 Oct 2020 – The Phantom Republics;  is the name given to the States demanding the status of independence;  after the breakup of the Soviet Union: Abkhazia and South Ossetia in Georgia, Transnistea in Moldova, and Nagorno-Karabakh;  between Azerbaijan and Armenia.  The conflicts in Georgia and Moldova are now “frozen”; but they can “melt” at any time.  One might add the Donbass and Luhansk of Ukraine to the list  although the aims of the “separatists”;  are not fully clear: an autonomous status within Ukraine;  integration into the Russian Federation;  or an independent state.

The Association of World Citizens  had in a 14 April 2014 message;  to the Secretary General of the Organization of Security and Cooperation in Europe;  welcomed the serious consideration of federalist  government structures for Ukraine;  being proposed both by the then President of Ukraine;   in a 13 April 2014 statement;  and by the authorities of the Russian Federation. Since then the conflict has been “frozen”;  and no new advances have been made on constitutional structures.

As fighting has resumed between Armenia and Azerbaijan;  the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict has moved to center stage.

Package Deal.

As a first step toward a resolution of the conflicts in Georgia, Moldova and Nagorno-Karabakh;  is to have the Phantom Republics be given membership  within the United Nations;  so that their representatives could speak for themselves: Abkahazia, South Ossetia, Transnistra and the Republic of Artsakh;  the name given by the Armenian leadership to the Nagorno-Karabakh area.  In the Association of World Citizens’ proposal;  security would start with a “package deal” for the four entities.  Once recognized through U.N. membership;  it will be up to each of the Phantom Republics to create economic, social and political ties with its neighbors.

There are obviously oppositions;  to recognition of each of these states as independent members of the U.N;  in particular opposition from the state of which they were once a part.  Nevertheless;  such a package deal resembles earlier package deals for U.N. membership;  when countries had been blocked by Cold War tensions.  U.N. membership grants recognition of being part of the international community.

Breaking out of Thinking in Fixed Patterns.

To find mutually acceptable forms of government in these conflicts;  will require political creativity (breaking out of thinking in fixed patterns);  and then new forms of constitutional order;  such as renewed forms of con-federal types of government;  greater popular participation in decision making;  and new forms of protection of minorities.

Flexibility;  compromise and cooperation are the hallmarks of success;  when it comes to resolving conflicts concerning independence and autonomy.  There is a need for a healing of past animosities;  and a growth of wider loyalties.  Thus;  there is a need to create what has been called a “dialogic community” – a group of people who are concerned with intra-state conflicts;  who stress non-violent strategies of conflict resolution and associative methods of problem solving. These are people with political imagination;  who are willing to think about new institutions, practices, and ways of  life.  Today;  we are in a race between those who would create such a “dialogic community”;  and those who would use ethnic identity and ethnic myths to mobilize for narrow aims.

Thus;  the Phantom Republics can join the U.N. to sit along with such small U.N. members as Andorra, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco and San Marino – states born with the restructuring of feudal Europe.  It may take some time to turn Abkhazia into a Black Sea Monaco;  but inevitably, for economic and social reasons;  neighboring states learn to cooperate if they are not able to destroy by war.


René Wadlow is President of the Association of World Citizens;  an international peace organization with consultative status with ECOSOC;  the United Nations organ facilitating international cooperation and problem-solving in economic and social issues.

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