Tag: <span>Abdur Rahman Khan</span>

Afghanistan Appeals

Afghanistan: A Month of Questions and No Clear Replies.

Featured Image: A street in Kabul, Afghanistan. By Christopher Killalea, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.

By Rene Wadlow.

It is a month that the Taliban forces have taken control of Kabul, a symbol that they now control the state.  In addition to the Taliban, there are an estimated 10,000 foreign fighters in some 20 Islamist groups. Among these are fighters from the Islamic State (ISIS) who had been active in Iraq and Syria.  Until now, these foreign fighters had operated independently from the Taliban.

An interim government of largely hard-line Taliban members has been created.  However public services of education, health, transportation are poorly served if at all.  The economy is at a standstill.  Many persons who had worked for the U.S. or NATO troops as well as employees of Western non-governmental organizations have been given refuge abroad, but many had to be left behind.  There is a flow of refugees to Pakistan, Iran, and the Central Asian Republics of the former USSR.  Many other persons are also looking at the possibilities of leaving, and few consider returning from abroad.

Authorities in the regional states – Pakistan, Iran, China, India and the Central Asian Republics – are all asking questions as to what policies will the Taliban government put into place.  General Faiz Hameed, the head of Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) has already gone to Kabul to find answers, and, no doubt, to try to influence the policies.  The ISI has been deeply involved in Afghan politics, especially since 1980 and the start of the Soviet intervention. At the start of August, one of the leading Taliban, Mullah Baradar met with the Foreign Minister of China, Wang Yi in China.

Wang Yi

Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China Wang Yi during a meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin. By Kremlin.ru, CC BY 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons.

When the Taliban last ruled (1996-2001), they enforced a harsh interpretation of Islamic law, banning girls and women from schools and public life.  The media was closely under control, and minorities marginalized.  While it is still too early to know what the policies and practices of the Taliban toward minorities will be now, during the past Taliban rule, there was systematic discrimination against the Hazara.  Thus on September first, the Association of World Citizens issued a Hazara Appeal.

The Hazara

Hazara people in the streets of Kabul, Afghanistan 2020. By Shaah-Sultaan, CC BY-SA 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons.

 Read the Post. We Must Protect the Rights of the Hazara Population in Afghanistan.

The are some three  million Hazara whose home area is in the central mountainous core of Afghanistan, but a good number have migrated to Kabul, most holding unskilled labor positions in the city.  The Hazara are largely Shi’a in religion but are considered as non-Muslim heretics or infidels by the Taliban.  In the past, there was a genocidal period under the rule of Abdur Rahman Khan.  During the 1891 – 1893 period, it is estimated that 60 percent of the Hazara were killed and many others put into slavery-like conditions.

To understand fully the concern of the Association of World Citizens for the Hazara, it is important to note that for the 1948 Convention against Genocide, the criteria for mass killings to be considered genocide does not depend on the number of persons killed or the percentage of the group destroyed but on the possibility of the destruction of the identity of a group. It is the identity of the Hazara and their religious base which is the key issue.

There have been repeated appeals to make the 1948 Genocide Convention operative as world law.  The 1948 Convention has an action article, Article VIII which states: 

“Any Contracting Party may call upon the competent organs of the United Nations to take such action under the Charter of the United Nations as they consider appropriate for the prevention and suppression of acts of genocide.” 

Despite factual evidence of mass killings in Cambodia, former Yugoslavia, and Rwanda, no Contracting Party to the Genocide Convention has ever called for any action under Article VIII. (1)

Thus the World Citizen Appeal that events need to be watched closely and non-governmental organizations be prepared to take appropriate action to alert government.

 

Note.


1. For a detailed study of the 1948 Convention and subsequent normative development see William A. Schabas. Genocide in International Law (Cambridge University Press, 2000, 624 pp.)

 

Rene Wadlow, President, Association of World Citizens.

 

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The Hazara Appeals-Français

Nous devons protéger les droits du peuple Hazara en…

Image en vedette : Hazara dans les rues de Kaboul, Afghanistan 2020. Pour Shaah-Sultaan, CC BY-SA 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons.

The Association of World Citizens (AWC) Il exprime sa profonde préoccupation face à une éventuelle répression contre la population hazara en Afghanistan, répression d’une telle ampleur qu’elle pourrait être considérée comme un génocide. S’il est encore trop tôt pour savoir quelles seront les politiques et pratiques des talibans à l’égard des minorités, au cours du dernier régime taliban (1996-2001), il y a eu une discrimination systématique contre les Hazara et une série de massacres.

Il y a quelque trois millions de Hazaras dont la zone de résidence se trouve dans le noyau montagneux central de l’Afghanistan, mais un bon nombre ont migré vers Kaboul, la plupart d’entre eux occupant des postes de main-d’œuvre non qualifiée dans la ville.

Les Hazaras sont majoritairement chiites de religion, mais les talibans et les membres de l’État islamique du Khorasan (ISIS-K) les considèrent comme des hérétiques non musulmans ou infidèles, qui ont désormais également une présence armée en Afghanistan.

Dans le passé, il y a eu une période de génocide sous le règne d’Abdur Rahman Khan. Au cours de la période 1891-1893, environ 60 pour cent des Hazaras ont été tués et de nombreux autres placés dans des conditions proches de l’esclavage.

Pour bien comprendre la préoccupation de l’AWC pour les Hazara, il est utile de rappeler l’article II de la Convention sur le génocide de 1948.

Dans la présente Convention, le génocide désigne l’un des actes suivants commis dans l’intention de détruire, en tout ou en partie, un groupe national, ethnique, racial ou religieux, en tant que tel :

  • Tuer les membres du groupe.
  • Causer des dommages physiques ou mentaux graves aux membres du groupe.
  • Infliger délibérément des conditions de vie au groupe de nature à provoquer une destruction physique totale ou partielle.
  • Imposer des mesures visant à prévenir les naissances au sein du groupe.
  • Transfert forcé d’enfants du groupe à un autre groupe.

Abdur Rahman Khan

Abdur Rahman Khan, Roi d’Afghanistan de 1880 à 1901. Pour Frank A. Martin, Domaine public, via Wikimedia Commons.

Cependant, des appels répétés ont été lancés pour que la Convention sur le génocide de 1948 devienne opérationnelle en tant que loi mondiale. Le secrétaire général des Nations Unies de l’époque, Kofi Annan, a déclaré dans un discours prononcé à l’UNESCO le 8 décembre 1998:

“Beaucoup pensaient, sans aucun doute, que les horreurs de la Seconde Guerre mondiale – les camps, la cruauté, les exterminations, l’Holocauste – ne pourraient plus se reproduire. Et pourtant ils l’ont fait. Au Cambodge, en Bosnie-Herzégovine, au Rwanda. Notre époque, même cette décennie, nous a montré que la capacité de l’homme pour le mal ne connaît pas de limites. Le génocide, la destruction de tout un peuple sur la base de ses origines ethniques ou nationales, est désormais un mot qui est aussi notre temps libre, un rappel dur et obsédant de pourquoi notre vigilance est éternelle.”

La Convention de 1948 a un article d’action, l’article VIII:

Toute Partie contractante peut demander aux organes compétents des Nations Unies de prendre les mesures prévues par la Charte des Nations Unies qu’ils jugent appropriées pour la prévention et la répression des actes de génocide. […]

Malgré des preuves factuelles de massacres, dont certains avaient l’intention de détruire « en tout ou en partie », aucune Partie contractante n’a jamais demandé d’action au titre de l’article VIII. (1)

Les critères pour que les massacres soient considérés comme un génocide ne dépendent pas du nombre de personnes tuées ou du pourcentage du groupe détruit, mais de la possibilité que l’identité d’un groupe soit détruite. C’est l’identité des Hazaras et leur base religieuse est la question clé. Les événements doivent être surveillés de près et les organisations non gouvernementales doivent être prêtes à prendre les mesures appropriées.

Kofi Annan

L’envoyé spécial conjoint Kofi Annan s’est adressé aux médias à l’Office des Nations Unies à Genève après la réunion du Groupe d’action sur la Syrie le 30 juin 2012. Par la mission américaine à Genève, domaine public, via Wikimedia Commons.

Noter.

(1) Pour une étude détaillée de la Convention de 1948 et du développement normatif ultérieur, voir: William A. Schabas, Genocide in International Law (Cambridge University Press, 2000, 624 pp.)

Prof. René Wadlow, Président de  the Association of World Citizens.

Si vous souhaitez lire cet article dans sa version originale, visitez: We Must Protect the Rights of the Hazara Population in Afghanistan.

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The Hazara Apelaciones

Debemos proteger los derechos de la población Hazara en…

Imagen Destacada: Pueblo Hazara en las calles de Kabul, Afganistán 2020. Por Shaah-Sultaan, CC BY-SA 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons.

The Association of World Citizens (AWC) Manifiesta su profunda preocupación por la posible represión contra la población Hazara en Afganistán, represión de tal magnitud que podría considerarse genocidio. Si bien todavía es demasiado pronto para saber cuáles serán las políticas y prácticas de los talibanes hacia las minorías, durante el pasado gobierno de los talibanes (1996-2001) hubo una discriminación sistemática contra los Hazara y una serie de masacres.

Hay unos tres millones de Hazara cuya zona de residencia se encuentra en el núcleo montañoso central de Afganistán, pero un buen número ha emigrado a Kabul, la mayoría ocupando puestos de mano de obra no calificada en la ciudad.

Los Hazara son mayoritariamente chiíes en religión, pero los talibanes y los miembros del Estado Islámico en Khorasan (ISIS-K) los consideran herejes no musulmanes o infieles, que ahora también tienen presencia armada en Afganistán.

En el pasado hubo un período genocida bajo el gobierno de Abdur Rahman Khan. Durante el período 1891-1893, se estima que el 60 por ciento de los Hazara fueron asesinados y muchos otros puestos en condiciones similares a la esclavitud.

Para comprender plenamente la preocupación de la AWC por los hazara, es útil recordar el artículo II de la Convención contra el Genocidio de 1948.

En la presente Convención, genocidio significa cualquiera de los siguientes actos cometidos con la intención de destruir, total o parcialmente, a un grupo nacional, étnico, racial o religioso, como tal:

  • Matar a miembros del grupo.
  • Causar daños físicos o mentales graves a los miembros del grupo.
  • Infligir deliberadamente al grupo condiciones de vida calculadas para provocar la destrucción física total o parcial.
  • Imponer medidas destinadas a prevenir los nacimientos dentro del grupo.
  • Transferir por la fuerza a los niños del grupo a otro grupo.

Abdur Rahman Khan

Abdur Rahman Khan, Rey de Afganistán desde 1880 hasta 1901. Por Frank A. Martin, Dominio Público, via Wikimedia Commons.

No obstante, han existido  repetidos llamamientos para que la Convención sobre el Genocidio de 1948 sea operativa como ley mundial. El entonces Secretario General de las Naciones Unidas, Kofi Annan, dijo en un discurso en la UNESCO el 8 de diciembre de 1998:

“Muchos pensaron, sin duda, que los horrores de la Segunda Guerra Mundial – los campos, la crueldad, los exterminios, el Holocausto – no podrían volver a ocurrir. Y sin embargo lo han hecho. En Camboya, en Bosnia y Herzegovina, en Ruanda. Nuestro tiempo, incluso esta década, nos ha demostrado que la capacidad del hombre para el mal no conoce límites. El genocidio, la destrucción de todo un pueblo sobre la base de sus orígenes étnicos o nacionales, es ahora una palabra que también es nuestro tiempo libre, un recordatorio duro e inquietante de por qué nuestra vigilancia es eterna..”

La Convención de 1948 tiene un artículo de acción, el Artículo VIII:

Cualquier Parte Contratante podrá pedir a los órganos competentes de las Naciones Unidas que tomen las medidas previstas en la Carta de las Naciones Unidas que consideren apropiadas para la prevención y represión de actos de genocidio. […]

A pesar de las pruebas fácticas de matanzas en masa, algunas con la intención de destruir “en su totalidad o en parte”, ninguna Parte Contratante ha pedido jamás que se tomen medidas en virtud del artículo VIII. (1)

Los criterios para que los asesinatos en masa se consideren genocidio no dependen del número de personas asesinadas o del porcentaje del grupo destruido, sino de la posibilidad de que se destruya la identidad de un grupo. Es la identidad de los Hazara y su base religiosa es el tema clave. Los eventos deben ser observados de cerca y las organizaciones no gubernamentales deben estar preparadas para tomar las medidas adecuadas.Kofi Annan

El Enviado Especial Conjunto, Kofi Annan, habló con los medios de comunicación en la Oficina de las Naciones Unidas en Ginebra después de la reunión del Grupo de Acción para Siria del 30 de junio de 2012. Por US Mission en Geneva, Dominio Público, via Wikimedia Commons.

 

Nota.

(1) Para un estudio detallado de la Convención de 1948 y el desarrollo normativo subsiguiente, ver: William A. Schabas, Genocide in International Law (Cambridge University Press, 2000, 624 pp.)

 

Prof. René Wadlow, Presidente de  the Association of World Citizens.

Si deseas leer este artículo en su versión original, visita: We Must Protect the Rights of the Hazara Population in Afghanistan.

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The Hazara Appeals

We Must Protect the Rights of the Hazara Population…

Featured Image: Hazara people in the streets of Kabul, Afghanistan 2020. By Shaah-Sultaan, CC BY-SA 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons.

The Association of World Citizens (AWC) is strongly concerned by possible repression against the Hazara population in Afghanistan, repression of such an extent that it could be considered genocide. While it is still too early to know what the policies and practice of the Taliban toward minorities will be now, during the past Taliban rule (1996-2001) there was systematic discrimination against the Hazara and a number of massacres.

There are some three million Hazara whose home area is in the central mountainous core of Afghanistan, but a good number have migrated to Kabul, most holding unskilled labor positions in the city. The Hazara are largely Shi’a in religion but are considered as non-Muslim heretics or infidels by the Taliban as well as by members of the Islamic State in Khorasan (ISIS-K), now also an armed presence in Afghanistan.

In the past there was a genocidal period under the rule of Abdur Rahman Khan. During the 1891-1893 period, it is estimated that 60 percent of the Hazara were killed, and many others put into slavery-like conditions.

To understand fully the concern of the AWC for the Hazara, it is useful to recall Article II of the 1948 Convention against Genocide.

In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, as such:

  • Killing members of the group;
  • Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
  • Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about the physical destruction in whole or in part;
  • Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
  • Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.

Abdur Rahman Khan

Abdur Rahman Khan, King of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901. By Frank A. Martin, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.

There have been repeated appeals to make the 1948 Genocide Convention operative as world law. The then United Nations Secretary-General, Kofi Annan, said in an address at UNESCO on December 8, 1998:

“Many thought, no doubt, that the horrors of the Second World War – the camps, the cruelty, the exterminations, the Holocaust – could not happen again. And yet they have. In Cambodia, in Bosnia and Herzegovina, In Rwanda. Our time – this decade even – has shown us that man’s capacity for evil knows no limits. Genocide – the destruction of an entire people on the basis of ethnic or national origins – is now a word our out time too, a stark and haunting reminder of why our vigilance but be eternal.”

The 1948 Convention has an action article, Article VIII:

Any Contracting Party may call upon the competent organs of the United Nations to take such action under the Charter of the United Nations as they consider appropriate for the prevention and suppression of acts of genocide […]

Despite factual evidence of mass killings, some with the intent to destroy “in whole or in part”, no Contracting Party has ever called for any action under Article VIII. (1)

The criteria for mass killings to be considered genocide does not depend on the number of people killed or the percentage of the group destroyed but on the possibility of the destruction of the identity of a group. It is the identity of the Hazara and their religious base which is the key issue. Events need to be watched closely, and nongovernmental organizations must be prepared to take appropriate action.

Kofi Annan

Joint Special Envoy Kofi Annan spoke with the media at the United Nations Office at Geneva following the June 30, 2012 Meeting of the Action Group for Syria. By US Mission in Geneva, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.

 

Note.

(1) For a detailed study of the 1948 Convention and subsequent normative development see: William A. Schabas, Genocide in International Law (Cambridge University Press, 2000, 624 pp.)

 

Prof. René Wadlow is President of the Association of World Citizens.

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June 20 is the United Nations (UN)-designated World Refugee Day;  marking the signing in 1951 of the Convention on Refugees. The condition of refugees and migrants has become a “hot”…

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